Our liver is an organ that has an important job. It filters toxins from the blood, makes enzymes that help digest food, stores sugar and nutrients and helps fight infections. Each time your liver gets damaged, it repairs itself and forms tough scar tissue. When there is too much scar tissue, the organ can’t work right. When these scars exceed the normal tissue, gradually the liver starts losing its function. This can happen due to some metabolic disorders or infection or alcohol addiction. This condition is known as liver cirrhosis. This article on the Indian diet plan for liver cirrhosis stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 has details on what to eat and avoid during cirrhosis.
Indian diet plan for Liver Cirrhosis Stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 ( What to Eat and Avoid ):
Let us first take a look at the nutritional requirements in Liver cirrhosis.
Diet and Nutrition in Liver Cirrhosis:
The energy requirements during the cirrhosis increases. There are about 25 to 35 calories per kg of dry body weight of the patient. It increases with progression in the stage of cirrhosis. If oral intake becomes difficult any liver-friendly supplements or tube feeding is advisable.
The primary role of the liver is to metabolize carbohydrates. Liver failure leads to reduced glucose production. Thus, high carbohydrates that can be easily digestible are advised. For example, rice, wheat flour, oats, potato, etc.
This is the most controversial topic for liver diseases. Cirrhosis is a disease where there is a protein breakdown. Thus the protein needs increases. 0.8 – 1.0 grams per kg of dry body weight is the recommendation. It can go up to 1.2 to 1.3 with hepatic encephalopathy or end-stage liver disease. With infection in alcoholic cirrhosis, the need increases up to 1.5 grams per kg dry body weight. It is advised to concentrate on the quality of proteins. Give more of branched-chain amino acid i.e more of vegetable protein, egg whites, milk proteins and less of animal protein.
During cirrhosis, fats are the primary source of energy. Thus a normal intake of 25 to 30 % of total calories has to be from fats. Try to incorporate more monounsaturated fats, omega 3 fatty acids and avoid trans fats as much as possible.
Vitamins and minerals:
The primary role of the liver to manage vitamin and mineral levels is compromised. Thus an additional multivitamin and mineral supplement is required. The liver is a store of vitamins A, D, E and K. Thus these vitamins become important to be supplemented from outside sources. Read – Benefits of Vitamin E.
The fluid requirement depends on the urine output throughout the day and edema that the patient exhibits. The fluid intake is calculated using the urine output plus an extra 500 ml for insensible losses.
Indian diet plan for Liver Cirrhosis:
Here is a sample Indian diet plan for liver cirrhosis for stage 1, stage 2, stage 3 and stage 4 that is end-stage liver disease. This sample diet plan is made with a Consideration of a non-alcoholic man of 60 kgs (without counting edema weight) with the progression of cirrhosis in different stages.
Indian Diet Plan for Liver Cirrhosis Stage 1 and stage 2:
- Calories – 1500 kcal (25 kcal per kg body weight).
- Proteins – 48 – 60 grams (0.8 – 1 gram per kg).
- Fluid allowance is 1500 ml.
|Breakfast||1 cup Oats with ½ cup milk |
+ 4 – 6 soaked almonds
|Mid-morning||1 fruit (fruits allowed are Guava/ Apple/ Pear/ Pineapple/ Papaya )|
|Lunch||1 cup sprout salad with vegetables + |
2 Chapati Or
1.5 Cup Rice +
1 cup leeched vegetables +
½ cup pulse or thick dal +
1 cup hung curd
|Evening||1 cup Vegetable Daliya / Oats Upama / Rawa upama|
+ 2 egg whites or 40 grams paneer
|Dinner||1 ½ cup Vegetable Dal Khichdi + |
1 cup Thick Vegetable soup (not strained)
|Bedtime||2 dates (fresh or dry)|
Indian Diet Plan for Liver Cirrhosis Stage 3 and stage 4:
- Calories – 2100 kcal (35 kcal per kg body weight).
- Proteins – 72 – 78 grams proteins (1.2 – 1.3 grams per kg).
- Fluid allowance is 1500 ml.
|Breakfast||3 – 4 small moong dal chilla with tomato chutney|
+ 1 cup hung curd
|Mid-morning||80 grams Paneer OR 2 – 3 egg whites +|
½ cup mashed potatoes (leeched)
|Lunch||1 cup Thick Vegetable soup + |
3 Chapatis +
1 cup Quinoa/ Rice/ Daliya +
1 cup Vegetables (leeched) +
½ cup Pulse (Moong/ moth beans/ masoor/ small chana)
|Evening||1 fruit (fruits allowed – Guava/ Apple/ Pear/ Pineapple/ Papaya) +|
4 – 6 walnuts +
4 almonds +
1 tablespoon pumpkin seeds
|Dinner||2 Paneer Parathas +|
Dal khichdi 1 cup +
Vegetables (leeched) 1 cup +
Hung Curd 1 cup
|Bedtime||2 Dates (fresh or dry)|
- Restrict the use of salt to not more than 1 teaspoon a day. Read the Indian diet plan for high blood pressure.
- Leeching: Boil all the vegetables and pulses and throw away the water. This removes extra potassium in the food which might harm the liver. This process is called leeching.
- Boil rice, throw away the water and use the strained rice. Rice water has lipoxidase which can destroy Vitamin A in the food. Hence it is best avoided.
Now that we have seen the Indian diet plan for liver cirrhosis stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 Let us have a look at other important factors and some FAQs of Liver Cirrhosis.
What are the Causes of Liver Cirrhosis?
- Alcohol abuse.
- Hepatitis B and C.
- Metabolic Disorders.
What are the signs and symptoms of Liver Cirrhosis?
- Fatigue, weakness and severe muscle cramps.
- Lack of appetite and weight loss.
- Intense itching or redness in the palms.
- Vomiting blood.
- Spider web-like blood vessels in your skin.
- Excessive bleeding or easy bruising.
- Brittle bones.
How is Liver Cirrhosis Diagnosed?
- Physical examination.
- Blood tests.
- Confirmed by liver biopsy.
What are the Complications of Liver Cirrhosis?
- Swelling of the abdomen.
- Inflammation of the peritoneum.
- Bleeding near the Gastrointestinal region.
- Hepatic encephalopathy.
How long does a person live after being diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver?
What are the Stages of Liver Cirrhosis?
- Stage 1 cirrhosis: It involves some scarring of the liver, but few symptoms. This stage is considered compensated cirrhosis with no complications.
- Stage 2 cirrhosis: It includes worsening portal hypertension (hypertension around the gastrointestinal region) and the development of varices.
- Stage 3 cirrhosis: It involves the development of swelling in the abdomen and advanced liver scarring. This stage marks decompensated cirrhosis, with serious complications, Hence a possibility of liver failure arises.
- Stage 4 cirrhosis: It can be life-threatening and patients may develop end-stage liver disease (ESLD), which is fatal without a transplant.
What are the effects of cirrhosis on the body?
Bodyweight: The body weight changes according to water retention and muscle wasting during prolonged liver disorder. Muscle mass can reduce body weight. However, water retention can lead to show normal weight.
Creatinine index: As the condition of kidney degrades the creatinine levels increase. This increase in creatinine indicates muscle breakdown and Hence malnutrition follows.
Immunity: Malnutrition compromises immunity. Furthermore, the infection, renal insufficiency, electrolyte imbalance reduces immunity.
Fluid electrolyte imbalance: There is a reduction in body proteins leading to water retention and edema in the body.
Vitamin deficiency: The liver produces vitamin D. Hence cirrhosis and Renal insufficiency together lead to vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis.
Portal Hypertension: An increase in the pressure within the portal vein. The portal vein carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver.
Ascites: Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling.
With a perfectly planned diet, cirrhosis can be managed beautifully. Hence sheer dedication is required to improve the quality of life. You may be interested in reading: